The 4 upavedas

The four upavedas relate to traditional and technical sciences and constitute four of the 14 vidyās. Along way they each were said to have evolved predominantly from one of the four Vedas:

  1. Āyurveda from ṛg veda or atharva veda;  literally, “the science of life,” relates to healing humans, plants, animals and the earth. You can learn more about Ayurveda here.
  2. Dhanurveda from yajur veda; a treatise on weaponry and warfare (gave rise to martial arts like Kallaripayattu, etc).
  3. Gandharvaveda from sāma veda; the study of art forms like dance, music, poetry, etc.
  4. Arthaśāstra from Artharva veda; related to affairs of state and governance. (Or, in some sources, sthāpatyaveda (architecture) or, śilpaśāstra (aesthetic theory and tradition of arts and crafts). Part III of śukranīti–a text that is part of dharmaśāstra–(ancient texts that explore rules for daily conduct within the context of society) lists tantra as the fourth upaveda.